Community-acquired pneumonia develops in people with limited or no contact with medical institutions or settings. The most commonly identified pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, atypical bacteria (ie, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella sp), and viruses. Symptoms and signs are fever, cough, sputum production, pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, tachypnea, and tachycardia. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and chest x-ray. Treatment is with empirically chosen antibiotics. Prognosis is excellent for relatively young or healthy patients, but many pneumonias, especially when caused by S. pneumoniae, Legionella, Staphylococcus aureus, or influenza virus, are serious or even fatal in older, sicker patients